Text encoding - descriptive

Descriptive text encoding, or markup, refers to the addition of character and symbols, or tags, at certain places in a text in order to convey information about concrete and abstract concepts (e.g. genres, topical subjects); its logical structure (e.g. identification of headings, paragraphs); its linguistic components (e.g. PoS-tagging [parts of speech], phonological and morphological markup); or about concrete and abstract named entities (e.g. identification of personal names, geographic names).

The idea of descriptive text encoding is to label the constituent parts of the document, but not give any instructions on how it should be presented or processed. For this reason, it is also referred to as ‘semantic markup’. This separation of form and content means that descriptive encoding need only be applied once, even if changes are made to the resulting output of the text.

Text can be encoded descriptively using SGML, XHTML or one of the many standards of XML, for example. Descriptive HTML tags include <p>, <h1> and <em>, which can then be styled using CSS.

Related methods include: General website development, Text encoding – presentational and Text encoding – referential.

Syndicate content