Texture design and mapping

The production and applying / wrapping of a texture image onto an object to create a realistic representation of the object in 3D space. The process is similar to wrapping a plain object in patterned paper. Texture mapping adds detail, surface texture or colour to the object.

Texture space is represented on a computer screen by texels (which can stand for both ‘texture elements’ and ‘texture pixels’). In order to texture the surface of an object, a texel is mapped to each of its pixels.

Multitexturing is when more than one texture is applied to an object at the same time. This is sometimes used to create lighting effects, where a lighter coloured texture is applied rather than modelling the direction of a light source.

Bump mapping is used for complex surfaces, such as tree bark, concrete and orange peel, to create a more realistic texture. It achieves this by changing the brightness of pixels in response to a heightmap that determines the lighting for the object. In ‘true’ or ‘3D’ bump mapping (also called ‘displacement mapping’), the geometry of the object is changed, giving it a ‘bumpy’ silhouette. However, ‘fake’ or ‘2D’ bump mapping is often used as it is more computationally efficient. Although it changes the appearance of the surface of the object, it does not change the object’s geometry, leading to a smooth silhouette.

Perspective correct texturing maps the object in a 3D space, so that areas closer to the viewer appear larger and areas further away appear smaller. This is achieved by stretching or compressing the distance between pixels.

Related methods include: 3d Graphic design, 3D modelling – vector, Animation and Virtual world modelling.

tool: RivEx

RivEx is a river network tool designed to run under ESRI ArcMap 9.1. It allows for quality control and analysis of the river network and creation of node layers.
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Methods relating to this toolCategory
2d graphic designPractice-led research
2d illustrationPractice-led research
2d modelling - rasterData structuring and enhancement
2d modelling - vectorData structuring and enhancement
3d graphic designPractice-led research
3d modelling - interactiveData structuring and enhancement
3d modelling - vectorData structuring and enhancement
3d modelling - vectorPractice-led research
Desktop publishing and pre-pressData publishing and dissemination
DocumentationStrategy and project management
Geo-referencing and projectionData structuring and enhancement
Graphical interaction (asynchronous)Communication and collaboration
Graphical renderingData structuring and enhancement
Human factors analysisStrategy and project management
Texture design and mappingPractice-led research
Use of existing digital dataData capture
Virtual world modellingPractice-led research
VisualisationData analysis
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Alternate tool(s):

MotherPlanet

tool: GeoNames

A global geographical database that may be used to identify, tag and disambiguate all references to location. The database contains over 8 million entries, each of which possesses a geographic name (in various languages), latitude, longitude, elevation, population, administrative subdivision and postal codes and information on unique features.
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Methods relating to this toolCategory
Data miningData analysis
DocumentationStrategy and project management
Geo-referencing and projectionData structuring and enhancement
Record linkagesData analysis
Resource sharingData publishing and dissemination
Searching and queryingData analysis
Text recognitionData capture
Textual interaction (asynchronous)Communication and collaboration
Texture design and mappingPractice-led research
Use of existing digital dataData capture
VisualisationData analysis
Lifecycle stage:
Alternate tool(s):

Unlock

tool: GeoParser

GeoParser is a text analysis tool that may be used to identify, tag and (where appropriate) disambiguate references to geographic location in a text resource. The tool uses Natural Language Processing to analyse the composition of a resource and identifying words that match its geographic database. The approach is useful for processing ambiguous references, such as names that may have one of several locations (e.g. Belfast in Ireland, New Zealand and Canada) and distinguishing names that may be confused with other action (e.g. Reading in Berkshire and reading as an activity). GeoParser may be used with GeoCrossWalk to tag a place name with full geographical coordinates (e.g. an OS National Grid Reference).
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Methods relating to this toolCategory
Cataloguing and indexingData structuring and enhancement
Content analysisData analysis
Data miningData analysis
DocumentationStrategy and project management
Geo-referencing and projectionData structuring and enhancement
ParsingData analysis
Searching and queryingData analysis
Spatial data analysisData analysis
Text encoding - referentialData structuring and enhancement
Text miningData analysis
Text recognitionData capture
Textual interaction (asynchronous)Communication and collaboration
Texture design and mappingPractice-led research
Lifecycle stage:
Alternate tool(s):

Metacarta’s GeoTagger, Digital Reasoning’s GeoLocator, Lockheed Martin’s AeroText, and SRA’s NetOwl

tool: MMax2

MMax2 is a text annotation tool for creating and visualizing annotations. It has advanced and customizable methods for information and relation visualization.
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Methods relating to this toolCategory
Collaborative publishingData publishing and dissemination
Content analysisData analysis
DocumentationStrategy and project management
PreservationStrategy and project management
Searching and queryingData analysis
Text encoding - descriptiveData structuring and enhancement
Text encoding - referentialData structuring and enhancement
Text recognitionData capture
Textual interaction (asynchronous)Communication and collaboration
Texture design and mappingPractice-led research
User contributed contentData publishing and dissemination
VisualisationData analysis
Lifecycle stage:
Alternate tool(s):

NXT (NITE XML), Annotate

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