Online searchable item level catalogue and sample digital surrogate of the Archigram archives

Project start date: 2006-06 Project end date: 2010-01
The Archigram Archival Project (AAP) is a major new research resources that makes the work of the seminal 1960s-70s British architectural group, Archigram, available free online for public viewing and academic study. The extraordinary influence of Archigram is internationally acknowledged through the award of the RIBA Gold Medal in 2002, exhibitions, books, and through their role in shaping many of the world's greatest contemporary architects and buildings. Yet prior to the completion of this project, just a few of their projects were well publicised, while the vast bulk of their visionary work remained practically inaccessible, being stored in domestic conditions and subject to dilapidation, sale and loss. The Archigram website/database is available free online for general public use at a restricted image size. A high-resolution version has further been deposited with the University for use by appointment by bona-fide researchers. The website marks an entirely new kind of archive: it is a scholarly, online collection of material which does not depend on ownership, and which is designed to operate in the popular digital media as easily as it forms a reliable academic source. Besides receiving acclaim from academics internationally, the website's easy access, lively and yet scholarly design has drawn a vast number of enthusiastic informal users, mainly coming from Twitter and Facebook, suggesting a new model for academic archives. The website has already received 290,000 individual page views from a total of 53,000 users in just its first month of operation, which is staggeringly successful for this kind of output.
Era(s): 
Country/region(s): 
Methods usedCategory
2d scanning and photographyData capture
Cataloguing and indexingData structuring and enhancement
Coding and standardisationData structuring and enhancement
CollatingData analysis
CurationStrategy and project management
Desktop publishing and pre-pressData publishing and dissemination
DocumentationStrategy and project management
General project managementStrategy and project management
General website developmentData publishing and dissemination
Graphical interaction (asynchronous)Communication and collaboration
Graphical interaction (synchronous)Communication and collaboration
Image feature measurementData analysis
IndexingData analysis
Interface designData publishing and dissemination
Iterative designStrategy and project management
LemmatisationData structuring and enhancement
Manual input and transcriptionData capture
PreservationStrategy and project management
PrototypingStrategy and project management
Record linkagesData structuring and enhancement
Resource sharingData publishing and dissemination
Resource sharingCommunication and collaboration
Risk managementStrategy and project management
Searching and queryingData analysis
Server scriptingData publishing and dissemination
Sound encodingData structuring and enhancement
Sound recordingData capture
Textual interaction (asynchronous)Communication and collaboration
Textual interaction (synchronous)Communication and collaboration
Usability analysisStrategy and project management
Use of existing digital dataData capture
Version controlStrategy and project management
Video and moving image compressionData structuring and enhancement
Video editingData structuring and enhancement
Web browser scriptingData publishing and dissemination
Funding sources: 
Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC)
Software tools used: 
  • Adobe Photoshop
  • Apache
  • eAccelerator
  • Espresso as PHP IDE
  • Filemaker Pro
  • Final Cut Pro
  • Firebug
  • Google Maps
  • ImageMagik
  • jQuery
  • JW Player
  • Linux
  • Microsoft Word
  • MySQL
  • Perl
  • PHP5
  • phpMyAdmin
Source material used:  
The material digitised has predominantly come from Archigram Archives and Herron Archives, with significant contributions additionally being provided by the private collections of Peter Cook, David Greene, Michael Webb and the children of Warren Chalk. The bulk of the digitised collection consists of the original drawings and magazines produced by Archigram. Other items that have been digitised include the slide collection the group used for lectures, early sketches and revisions of specific drawings, original pieces of text, collected ephemera and photographs.
Digital resource created:  
The Archigram Archival Project (AAP) is a major new research resources that makes the work of the seminal 1960s-70s British architectural group, Archigram, available free online for public viewing and academic study. The extraordinary influence of Archigram is internationally acknowledged through the award of the RIBA Gold Medal in 2002, exhibitions, books, and through their role in shaping many of the world's greatest contemporary architects and buildings. Yet prior to the completion of this project, just a few of their projects were well publicised, while the vast bulk of their visionary work remained practically inaccessible, being stored in domestic conditions and subject to dilapidation, sale and loss. Through the AHRC grant, and in collaboration with surviving Archigram members and their heirs, our team has made the main body of their work available online through a custom-built, easily searchable website/database and catalogue containing almost 10,000 images deposited by Archigram. It includes drawings, collages, paintings, models, magazines, original texts and multi-media. The site covers the more than 200 projects currently listed in Archigram's own records. It also includes major new interpretative material, notably: recorded interviews with Archigram members or their families; a major bibliography of writings on Archigram; an extensively annotated list of collaborators; and a series of newly written and contemporaneous critical texts.
Access to digital resource:  
Open Access
Data Formats created: 
Publications:  
Archigram Archival Project: http://archigram.westminster.ac.uk

Fraser, Murray; Rattenbury, Kester. "Archigram Archival Project", published on Archigram Archival Project website: http://archigram.westminster.ac.uk/about.php?pg=text&tab=1

Institutions affiliated with this project: 

UK HE institutions involved:
University of Westminster

Project staff and expertise: 

Principal staff member:Dr Kester Rattenbury, Prof. Murray Fraser
Other staff:Computing officer(s) / Technical supporter(s)
External expertise:


Metadata on this arts-humanities.net record
Author(s) of recordClare Hamman
TitleOnline searchable item level catalogue and sample digital surrogate of the Archigram archives
Record created2010-10-04
Record updated2010-10-04 12:05
URL of recordhttp://www.arts-humanities.net/node/2324
Citation of recordClare Hamman: Online searchable item level catalogue and sample digital surrogate of the Archigram archives. <http://www.arts-humanities.net/node/2324> created: 2010-10-04, last updated 2010-10-04 12:05

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General Principles Of Mac Os X File System

INTRODUCTION:
The term 'file system' is used in computer technology to denote a programming strategy for storing
and retrieving files between the operating system and the hard disk drive or other media form (1). Of
course, the hard disk drive needs to understand what the operating system is trying to store and
retrieve and that is where the file system comes into play. So, the file system, itself, is really
a set of rules defining how the data will be named on the storage device, because without a name,
the data could not be retrieved (2). There are many different file systems in use today. Below, we briefly
cover just the most used and most relevant to this paper (3).

The implications of Bayesian modalities have been far-reaching and pervasive. Given the current status of modular models, biologists dubiously desire the emula- tion of operating systems, which embodies the practical principles of software engineering. In order to realize this goal, we verify not only that vacuum tubes can be made multimodal, collaborative, and permutable, but that the same is true for symmetric encryption.

TYPES OF FILE SYSTEMS:
HFS, which means Hierarchical File System, is the main file system for the Mac OS X. It is a modern file system
that supports POSIX permissions and has, at least, some limited automatic file defragmenting built-in. So, Mac
OS X can not run on a disk formatted with HFS, it can also boot from external hard disks formatted with HFS (4).

NTFS is the current file system for the latest versions of Windows starting with Windows 2000. NTFS doe not have
support for POSIX permissions or ownership. The Mac OS X has read-only support for NTFS (5).

FAT32 is the orginal file system for pre-Windows 2000 operating systems. It's current use is limited to flash
drives with all Windows versions can read and write and also Mac OS X can read and write. FAST32 does have some
limitations, such as, troubles with files that exceed 4GB. Also, FAT32 does not support POSIX permissions
or file ownership (5).

FAT64, (aka exFAT), is a newer version which maintains the simplicity of FAT32 and removes the 4GB file size
problems, but still does not supoort POSOX file permissions and ownership. The most recent Mac OS X, (10.6),
and newer have full read and write support for FAT64 (6).

Ext2 is modern file system that is used mostly in Linux systems. It is quite similar to Mac OS X, but it is
not natively supported in Mac OS X, free extensions would be needed (7).

OS X STANDARD DIRECTORIES: WHERE FILES RESIDE:
The APPLICATIONS Directory is where applications store their files as they are installed. Information
stored in this directory pertains to all users.

The LIBRARY directory.
There is more than one LIBRARY directory on the Mac OS X system. This is so that each user can have data
stored strictly for that user.

The NETWORK directory is where a list of computers is kept for the local area network, LAN.

The SYSTEM directory is used to store system resources that are needed by OS X to run properly. These resources are provided by Apple and must not be modified.

The USERS directory will contain one or more home directories for each user of the computer and those home
directories store user-related files for each user.

A typical user’s home directory would include subdirectories such as:
Applications Subdirectory Contains user-specific applications.
Desktop Subdirectory Contains the items on the user’s desktop
Documents Subdirectory Contains user documents and files
Downloads Subdirectory Contains files downloaded from the Internet
Library Subdirectory Contains user-specific application files
Movies Subdirectory Contains the user’s video files
Music Subdirectory Contains the user’s music files
Pictures Subdirectory Contains the user’s photos
Public Subdirectory Contains content the user wants to share
Sites Subdirectory Contains web pages used by the user’s personal site

SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING ON MAC OS X FILESYSTEM:
Scientific computing, also known as, scientific computation, is a term used to denote the
strategy of using advanced computer capabilities to solve complex problems (8). Scientific
computing has traditionally been done on Unix-type operating systems of which there are many
flavors such as: Irix, Solaris, BSD, GNU/Linux, and many others. Although each of these
Unix-type operating systems are very much similar, they also have their own peculiarities.
Some use a different file system and some have variations in their command syntax.

Mac OS X is another flavor of Unix which is named Darwin by Apple and is mostly based on the
BSD version of Unix. The significance of Mac OS X actually being a Unix-type operating system
is that it can support scientific computing, whereas, the Microsoft Windows operating system
can, at best, have a Unix emulator, (Cygwin), which does not have the same full capabilities.
Add to this, the Aqua graphical user interface of Mac OS X and you have a machine that can
support scientific computing while at the same time being very user friendly. Most other Unix
operating systems are operated by typing complex, hard to remember, commands into the console.

MAC OS X HIDDEN DIRECTORIES
Pretty much every operating system will have some directories that are hidden from the user, this
is mainly to protect the integrity of the system. However, to understand the Mac OS X file system,
it's important to be aware of some of these directories. A summary list is below (9).

Summary of Hidden Folders:
/.Spotlight-V100 Metadata indexes and indexing rules for Spotlight
/Volumes/(whatever)/.Trashes Files & folders that have been put in the trash but not yet deleted
/.hidden A list of files for the Finder to hide
/.hotfiles.btree Used to track commonly-used small files
/.vol Used to access files by their ID number
/automount Handles "quasi-static" mounts of network volumes
/bin Unix-style binaries (programs, or command-line commands) are kept
/cores Useful for programmers trying to debug their own programs.
/dev Contains device special files
/etc Contain all the configuration files for a system
/lost+found Contains "orphaned" files
/Network Location of the Network item that appears in the finder
/mach_kernel The kernel which runs at the very core of Mac OS X
/private Contains a directory of drivers for certain peripherals
/private/Network Handles "network" (non-static) mounts of network volumes
/sbin Contains binaries used for system administration
/tmp Temporary space on the hard disk
/usr Contains binaries and files specifically of use to the normal user
/usr/bin Contains other Unix binaries
/usr/lib Libraries available for use by programming
/usr/libexec Holds various daemon programs
/usr/local Used to store local customizations and additions to the standard OS installation
/usr/sbin Other Unix binaries are stored here
/usr/share Contains various data and text files
/usr/standalone Contains boot loader programs
/var Used to store variable files
/var/backups Used to store backups of critical system information

CONCLUSION:
There is a lot to learn regarding the Mac OS X file system especially if one has only used the
Windows platforms. However, when the day came that we had to clean up our own Mac OS X file system
with a program called Mackeeper,, we found that learning some Unix-type commands on our Mac OS X gave
us a head start when moving our big-data computing to a Linux server. We hope this paper helps
others in a similar way.

REFERENCES:
File_system
2.Chapter 3: File System Basics
coast.cs.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/sysutils/tct/chapter3
3. File System Types
cs.duke.edu/csl/docs/sysadmin_course/sysadm-65
4. HFS+: The Mac OS X File System
pages.cs.wisc.edu/~legault/miniproj-736.pdf
5. A Forensic Comparison of NTFS and FAT32 File Systems
marshall.edu/forensics/files/RusbarskyKelsey_Research-Paper-Summer-2012.pdf
6. Explanation of exFAT (Extended File Allocation Table, FAT64)
support.wdc.com/knowledgebase/answer.aspx?ID=3849
7. ext2
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ext2
8. Computational science
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computational_science
westwind.com/reference/OS-X/invisibles

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